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The first of the natural materials is wood. It is hard to imagine how humanity would live without this important building block. Wood has historical significance and is a central element of our lives. Its usability, strength and aesthetics intertwine throughout.
Plastic material, such as plastic, makes assembly and execution easier and cheaper. But man, because of his innate sense of aesthetics and, above all, his connection with nature, likes to resort to materials that offer him comfort, beauty and a sense of life.
At HARD, we are aware of this and, with respect for nature, we create pieces from natural materials that, with their minimalist design, testify to themselves. However, because we understand that the wishes and needs are different, we also offer a range of additional options.
You can choose from the following materials:
Solid wood is solid profile wood that is shaped and processed from all sides. Even the most valued is still solid wood, which is more difficult to afford today due to the growth of production and transport costs. Wood is obtained from coniferous or deciduous species. Tree species are quite different from each other, so it is important to pay attention to which solid wood we will choose for a specific use.
Advantages of solid wood:
Disadvantages of solid wood:
Glued board has significantly better properties than solid wood. Due to the processing and removal of weak parts, glued wood is extremely stable and strong.
These are wooden elements that are glued from smaller pieces of wood according to the prescribed rules according to the distribution of vintages. Beams and other structural elements made of glued wood have the advantage that each individual piece of wood bends in its own way, but due to the solid glued structure, all these bends are eliminated. Such wood also does not crack and is aesthetically very perfect, as the coatings on it remain durable for a significantly longer time.
Poor quality wood is used to make them. As a result, their price is significantly reduced, and some properties are greatly improved.
Veneers are thin sheets of wood up to 8 mm thick obtained by cutting and peeling veneer logs. The thickness of the veneer depends on the tree species, method of manufacture and purpose of use.
Compared to solid wood, one of the main advantages of using veneer is stability. While solid wood can be prone to bending and splitting, veneer is made from thin layers of wood glued together, which means the chances of splitting or cracking are reduced.
Some projects built with wood veneer could not be built using solid wood due to stretching and shrinkage due to temperature and humidity fluctuations. Another advantage of veneer is durability. Wood veneer furniture uses less wood than the same piece of solid wood furniture. In addition, veneer can also be more easily accessible than solid wood, as exotic hardwood can be rare and very expensive.
Ultrapas is a thin layer of plastic that is attached to a chipboard in a press. It is important that all parts are well glued together, as dirt accumulates behind poorly attached parts. Ultrapas is resistant to shocks and heat, it can also be easily cleaned with water and most other chemical agents, potential problems can only be contact with the wall, as usually there the contact replaces some other filler (plastic or wooden finish strip). Ultra-strip panels offer the largest selection of colors and patterns, from wood to stone and a variety of paintings.
MDF stands for medium density fiberborads. They are made of wood fibers (beech, spruce and fir) with the addition of resin.
MDF boards are recycled wood particles compressed with glue under high temperature. They can be in the raw state (in the color of wood) or enriched with melamine paper in various monochrome and wood decors, and we also get colored boards (fibers are dyed with different colors). Their advantages are: affordable price, they are stronger than chipboard, which is made of compressed sawdust, and are often lined with veneer, which creates the appearance of a board made of real wood. Compared to solid wood panels, they are lighter, the chemicals in them repel pests, and they are also not sensitive to moisture.
They are a cheap and durable alternative to imitation real wood. Adhesives are used for their use, which means that they do not contain only natural materials.
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Wood has optimal conditions for long life indoors. Humidity, which is the main reason for using protective coatings, is low inside, wood is removed from the sun, fungi and insects do not have access. Indoor wood has very low needs for chemical protection and expectations of indoor wood coatings are different from those for outdoor wood. Due to the favorable conditions in the living spaces, we have a very wide range of coatings available. With many pieces of furniture, the coating can be avoided, but because it also makes it look better, most wooden products have some kind of protection. The coating for wood indoors must protect against impurities, it must be resistant to mild cleaners and occasional spills. When we come across quality wood, translucent stains, oils and waxes are used for interior coating. With them, the wood gets basic protection, while preserving and even emphasizing the structure of the wood. Thick-layer decorative coatings are used mainly on wood of lower quality, where visible years are not in our interest, or in the restoration of old furniture, where we want to recreate the appearance of old oil paints with a thick coating. It is recommended to use products that maintain a healthy living environment in living spaces. Coatings intended for outdoor use do not belong to the interior or should, according to European guidelines, be physically sealed with a good topcoat or similar.
Good surface preparation is one of the factors that ensure the desired quality of processing. The basic factors of processing include grinding, smoothing and dedusting. There is a well-known saying among experts: “Well sanded – half lacquered”.
Staining is a technological process that changes the natural color of wood without covering its texture. We can emphasize the texture or partially blur it. By staining, we can revive the natural color of wood, imitate the color of noble tree species or age the wood surface.
According to the composition, there are various coatings that allow decorative painting of the surface. They differ from stains in terms of color effects achieved, and processing is also slightly easier. Primer paints are divided according to composition and purpose of use into several groups:
1. Nitro primer
2. Polyester primers
3. Polyurethane primers
4. Oil base paints
5. Water-based primers
Coating or coating agent is a general term for a substance that is applied in a thin layer to the surface of wood and, after the curing process, forms a thin cured film on the surface. The properties of the cured varnish film depend on the properties of the basic components of the coating. We know:
– COATINGS BASED ON NATURAL MATERIALS
1. Nitrocellulose varnishes
In terms of quality, they can be classified as coatings based on natural resins and coatings based on synthetic binders.
2. Polyurethane varnishes
Unfortunately, many polyurethane varnishes are prone to yellowing under the influence of UV light. The consumption of polyurethane varnishes is increasing, mainly for the production of quality furniture, and the limiting factor is their relatively high price.
3. Polyester varnishes
Polyester varnishes are a classic tested group of varnishes in many different compositions, which are used for various wood treatments. However, it is an ecological objection (styrene has a very low permissible concentration).
4. Polycondensation varnishes with acid hardener
These varnishes are known as “acid varnishes”. Consumption of these varnishes is declining and will continue to decline for ecological reasons.
5. Water-based varnishes
They are a group of water-based varnishes that use a wide variety of binders. They have a lower content of organic solvents or even without them and are dispersed in water. The most commonly used are acrylic, polyurethane, unsaturated polyester, acrylic-styrene copolymer, acrylic-polyurethane copolymer binders.
6. Acrylic varnishes
Acrylic varnishes represent a newer, less tested group of varnishes in wood surface treatment. The main ingredient in these varnishes is acrylic resin, which can be composed very differently.
1. Natural oils
These are oils of plant or animal origin that contain more or less unsaturated double bonds between carbon atoms. The number of double bonds determines whether the oils are drying, semi-drying or non-drying. Drying oils include flaxseed, tung, dehydrogenated castor, hemp oil and various fish oils. The most common semi-drying oils that we also use are soybean and sunflower oil. Flaxseed oil is mostly used, but it hardens for a very long time (even more than a week). For practical use, flax varnish, which contains heat-treated linseed oil to which curing-promoting desiccants have been added, is therefore more commonly used.
2. Natural resins
Rosin, Mastic, Shellac.
They are naturally or synthetically derived substances that are esters of higher fatty acids and saturated alcohols. Furniture is surface treated with waxes for three reasons:
– to protect surfaces from external negative influences,
– to emphasize the beauty of wood,
– to maintain a healthy living environment.
Waxes do not dissolve in water, they dissolve in organic solvents, turpentine, gasoline, benzene and other stronger organic solvents, as well as in warm alcohol.
Waxes can be vegetable, animal, synthetic and mineral.
Iron is the metal used the most, mainly because we can change its properties according to what it will be used for by adding other metals or carbon, sometimes silicon and phosphorus. Today, thousands of different steel castings are used.
But iron also has a weakness and that is rust. Iron is susceptible and there is no measure that can completely eliminate rust. The time to rust depends on the type of iron used.
Stainless steel and aluminum take longer to start to rust. This is due to the fact that the resulting rust coated the material. Steel itself tends to rust quickly. It only takes a day or two for an outdoor steel structure to start to rust.
Rust is iron oxide and is formed as a result of a reaction between iron and ambient moisture. Rust can spread quickly and if left untreated, the iron in a given structure can break down completely. Rust can be removed but it is a lengthy process that can take several hours.
Protection of iron against rust:
LUBRICATION: used to protect moving parts, but the procedure must be repeated at regular intervals.
PAINTING: used to protect large objects. Here, too, the paint needs to be restored when its surface cracks.
GALVANIZING: is the coating of steel with a layer of zinc that is more reactive than steel. If such a protected surface is scratched, zinc will react with oxygen rather than steel.
Our products made of iron and other metals are processed according to the rules. Pre-preparation includes sanding, which provides a good base for all other coatings. This is followed by a coating, application of a protective, primer paint and a final layer in the desired shades. The modern paint shop enables all metal parts of our products to be of high quality and beautiful.
It is very durable. Scratches can be fixed much better than with real wood veneer.
They impress with their charming natural look and feel.
Solid wood is especially stable.
Solid wood contributes to a good indoor climate, as it can absorb moisture but also relax it.
Disadvantages of solid wood:
The fact that solid wood regulates the humidity in the room can cause it to swell, shrink or crack. To keep this within limits, it is recommended that the humidity in the room be between 45 and 55 percent.
Glulam has significantly better properties than solid wood. Due to the processing and elimination of weak parts, glued wood is extremely stable and strong.
These are wooden elements that are glued together from smaller pieces of wood according to the prescribed rules according to the layout of the years. Beams and other structural elements made of glued wood have the advantage that each individual piece of wood bends in its own way, but due to the solid glued structure, all these bends are eliminated. Such wood also does not crack and is aesthetically very perfect, as the coatings on it remain durable for a significantly longer time.
Ultrapas is a thin layer of plastic (plastic) that is attached to a chipboard in a press. It is important that all parts are well glued together, as dirt accumulates behind poorly attached parts. Ultrapas is resistant to shocks and heat, it can also be easily cleaned with water and most other chemicals, only the contact with the wall can be a possible problem, as usually the contact there replaces some other filler (plastic or wooden finish strip). Ultra-strip panels offer the largest selection of colors and patterns, from wood to stone and a variety of paintings.
The following widths are to be expected for the seat:
For the foundation: the 240 cm long table offers space for 3 comfortable and 4 a few cramped seats on each side and 2 more seats at the head ends.
The following guidelines will help you make decisions:
45 cm – 55 cm for a chair without armrests
55 cm – 65 cm for a chair with armrests
The factor for the ideal width of the table is the space in the middle of the table. In order to be able to arrange dishes and food comfortably, a width of 95+ cm.
Another measure of width, however, is the proportions of the table. To achieve a more beautiful aesthetic appearance, it is recommended to choose a width of 80 cm – 95 cm for a table under 180 cm. For table lengths of 180 cm, you can choose a width of 100 cm. For large platforms longer than 280 cm, the width can be increased to 125 cm.
The standard height of the dining table is between 74 cm and 76 cm. Most chairs have a seat height between 44 cm and 48 cm. The distance from the seat to the top of the table should be between 27 cm and 31 cm.
Clear height is the measure from the floor to under the table. Gold for chairs with armrests should clarify whether the chairs should be pushed completely under the table. Then the clear height should not exceed the height of the armrests of the chair.
The table needs to be given its own space. It is recommended that the table has 80-100 cm of space on each side, for normal passage and deviation.
A smaller distance is possible with benches. With them, 20 cm of additional space is enough (bench depth + 20 cm).
You can use adhesive tape, cardboard or paper to make it easier to visualize. Cover the space, mark the space where the table is supposed to stand. This way, you can check to see if there is enough space to be comfortable to use, get up, or if you can walk around the table normally.
HARD offers its customers an inspiring selection of home and garden tables. Own collection of aesthetic products with functionality in mind.
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